网上购物 英语作文


Online shopping With the development of technology, online shopping has become popular in

people’s life. As many of us might have witnessed, more people are buying products through the Internet. It tends to be a common phenomenon.

Undoubtedly, online shopping has brought us many conveniences. Different

people hold the different ideas according to this phenomenon. The majority of people believe that online shopping is not only convenient but also helpful for people as a new shopping way. On the one hand, online shopping doesn’t need you to pour a lot of time and energy into buying things. If you go shopping in this way, you will spend a few minutes choosing the things that you need online instead of going out.

Moreover, online shopping doesn’t need us to get the things in person. On the other hand, online stores can provide various goods to satisfy our endless need. Besides, we can save much money by online shopping.

From above, we can know that online shopping has good effect on our life, but every coin has two sides. Some people hold the opposite ideas. First, for example, we maybe buy something wrong online because we don’t take much notice of the quality of the goods. Second, there are many swindlers who cheat us out of money by opening a fake online store.

As far as I am concerned, shopping online is an irreversible trend. More and more people will be accustomed to it. It will be much more popular in the near future. Although shopping online is a good way in shopping, we also need to reflect on when we buy things in this way.



Doing Shopping Online

With the help of the Internet, shopping is not a difficult job. Just click your mouse to choose the article you like, and the shopping is finished. You needn't step out of the room. It seems easy and quick. But there's always a trap online. If you are careless, it will bring you some trouble. You may find the color of the article is different from what you want, or the size is either too small or too big. If you want to be different, you'd better not buy clothes online. Once you put on the clothes you bought online and go out, you will find many people wear the same clothes in the street.

With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet has become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need.

Shopping on the Internet has a lot of advantages, of which the most important is perhaps its convenience. People don't have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. The goods come in all shapes, sizes and colors on the Internet. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mouses. The commodities they order will be delivered to them promptly.

However, shopping on the Internet also has its disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that the consumers can't see the goods or try them on personally. Sometimes, the real goods may not be the same as what they have seen on the computer. The second disadvantage is that some shops on the Internet are not registered. They will never deliver anything to you after they get the money from you. Once cheated, you will find that you have nowhere to go to complain.





Nowadays, the employment of college students is becoming more and more of a problem. About a decade ago, university students could find satisfactory and enviable jobs after graduation, while the things are quite different at present. In addition, according to statistics, about 30% of graduate students can’t find a job but stay at home after graduation. Employment difficulty of college students is due to the following reasons. Among these, the increasing recruitment of colleges and universities plays a vital role. In addition, many colleges and universities fail to adapt their courses to the development of economy. Considering the seriousness of unemployment of college students, I think it is high time that we took effective measures to solve the problem. Above all, college students should realize their own defects and further improve themselves to keep their competitive edge in society. Moreover, colleges or universities should provide more trainings and internship opportunities before the students enter the society. Besides, college students should hold a right attitude towards jobs and set their job expectations at a suitable level. Only through these ways can the college students find a satisfactory job and have a brighter future.



Which is better, shopping online or traditional shopping? Different people have

different attitudes towards it. Some people think that online shopping is very convenient, for it can save them a lot of time and energy. It’s especially helpful for those who are always busy with their work. Besides, through the internet, they can get more information about the commodities they want to buy and buy a lot of things that cannot be bought in local places.


Nevertheless, I’m not keen on online shopping at all, since most commodities which are bought online are of poor quality. Once we are cheated, we may find it difficult to make a complaint. Thus we should take more cautions when shopping online.


In my eyes, I prefer traditional shopping, because I can choose what I really need. Also, I can know the quality of every commodity more clearly. Even if there’s something wrong with the commodities, I can still ask the sellers to compensate for my loss.



With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet has become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need,but in contrast to buying in stores, there are lots of differences and simlarities between them. 随着互联网的发展以及计算机的普及,网上购物已经成为一个平凡的在我们的生活当中。消费者几乎可以买到所有的东西在这里他们需要,但是不同于购买商店,有很多差异,simlarities分给他们。

Comparing to buying in stores,, shopping on the Internet has a lot of advantages.On the one hand, it is very convenient and comfortable for us. People don't have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mouses. The commodities they order will be delivered to them promptly.比较在商店购物、网上购物有很多好处。一方面,这是非常方便和舒适为我们开启的门。人们不用花很多的精力和宝贵的时间去到从一个店到另一个选择他们喜欢的商品。这是特别可取的老人、病人和繁忙的人无法去商店的人。他们所要做的就是坐在电脑前面,并点击“只老鼠。所订商品马上送到。

On the other hand, shopping on the internet is also cheaper and more colorful to us.we can buy the commodities from the original company directly by paying for postages, which can save our money

because the price is very low. And they can also provide us with the goods coming in all shapes, sizes and colors on the Internet.we can choose what we want. 另一方面,网上购物是也更便宜、更多姿多彩的给我们。我们可以买商品从原公司直接由支付postages,这可以节省钱,因为我们的价格是很低的。而且他们也能够给我们提供该商品的形状,大小和颜色在互联网上。我们可以选择我们想要的东西。

However, shopping on the Internet also has the same to buying in stores. for example, both them are the ways for pepole to buy things. whatever people do, they both can buy what they need.然而,在因特网上购物也同样在商店购买。例如,两者方式,人们买东西。无论人们怎样做,他们都可以买他们需要什么。

In a word, shopping on the interner and buying in stores are both important to us in our daily life. we can choose what we want to buy accordding our own situations总之,购物动机和购买商店都是重要的给我们在我们日常生活中。我们可以选择我们想买accordding我们自己的情况

With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet has become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need.随着互联网的发展以及计算机的普及,网上购物已经成为一个平凡的在我们的生活当中。消费者几乎可以买到所有的东西在他们的需要。

Shopping on the Internet has a lot of advantages, of which the most important is perhaps its convenience. People don’t have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the

sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. The goods come in all shapes, sizes and colors on the Internet. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mouses. The commodities they order will be delivered to them promptly. 网上购物有很多优点,其中最重要的或许是它的便利。人们不用花很多的精力和宝贵的时间去到从一个店到另一个选择他们喜欢的商品。这是特别可取的老人、病人和繁忙的人无法去商店的人。货物到各个形状,大小和颜色在互联网上。他们所要做的就是坐在电脑前面,并点击“只老鼠。所订商品马上送到。

However, shopping on the Internet also has its disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that the consumers can’t see the goods or try them on personally. Sometimes, the real goods may not be the same as what they have seen on the computer. The second disadvantage is that some shops on the Internet are not registered. They will never deliver anything to you after they get the money from you. Once cheated, you will find that you have nowhere to go to complain.然而,在因特网上购物也有它的劣势。第一个不利条件是,消费者不能看到商品或亲自试一试。有时,真正的货物不得与这些人所见的是在计算机上。第二个缺点是一些店铺在互联网上没有注册。他们将永远不会提供任何东西给你之后,他们得到钱的。骗过,你会发现你无处可去抱怨。

Shopping on the Internet(网上购物)






With the development of the Internet and the popularization of computers, shopping on the Internet has become a commonplace in our life. Here consumers can buy almost everything they need.

Shopping on the Internet has a lot of advantages, of which the most important is perhaps its convenience. People don't have to waste a lot of their energy and precious time to go from one shop to another to choose the commodities they like. This is especially desirable to the old, the sick and the busy people who cannot go to the shops in person. The goods come in all shapes, sizes and colors on the Internet. All they need to do is to sit in front of their computers and click the mouses. The commodities they order will be delivered to them promptly.

However, shopping on the Internet also has its disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that the consumers can't see the goods or try them on personally. Sometimes, the real goods may not be the same as what they have seen on the computer. The second disadvantage is that some shops on the Internet are not registered. They will never deliver anything to you after they get the money from you. Once cheated, you will find that you have nowhere to go to complain.

第五篇:《英语作文网上购物 Online shopping》

Online Shopping

Alone with the advance of society more and more people tend to online shopping instead of going outside to shop.There is a certainty that online shopping will be gradually a common lifestyle as time rolls by.Surely ,just as every coin has two sides,online shopping comes with strengths and weaknesses.

On one side,when customers are longing to get one thing which is hard to be discovered in reality but easy to be searched on the Internet only with a click,they may choose online shopping without hesitating.On the other side,for retailers,online shopping make their products to be known by some people lived in the remote places.In a word,to a large extent,online shopping has become a vital convenience in our daily life. However,we cannot ignore the weakness of online shopping.As you see,nowadays a lot of people are tempted by the fascinating appearance of products,which bring about damned unsatisfactory.Additionally,no one could insure a completely secure process of transport.And usually,conflict between retailers and customers occurs when products are damaged .What’s more,it’s highly risky to trade on the Internet especially when one’s computer is invaded by virus.

From my point of view,online shopping should be accepted appropriately by people.For one thing,it is the product of social development,and as more and more people purchase in this way,those

who stick-in-the-mud will fall behind the public.For another thing,people should take good care of the credit-card or the deposit-card they use to start online shopping.Last but not least,the government are supposed to work to optimize the network environment.

I hope you have a good luck and enjoy the online shopping pleasure!


The Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Shopping

There is no denying the fact that online shopping has been gaining popularity these years. Obviously, it has a number of rewards/advantages. In the first place, it's a convenient way to purchase. People can buy things without going out. In the second place, goods online are usually sold at prices lower than in conventional stores, so we are more likely to buy bargains on the Internet. Last but not least, online shopping offers us a lot more choices of goods since we can browse online stores without the limit of time and location.


Nevertheless, as every coin has two sides, shopping online also has demerits/disadvantages. For one thing, it is hard to tell whether the thing one search in an online shop is fake or not. For another, people can not check or try on the thing they buy until they receive it. An added risk lies with online payment, which hasn’t proved to be secure enough. One’s password may be stolen.


From my point of view, the advantages of online shopping outweigh its disadvantages. We may take advantage of it but we need also take measures to ensure that its disadvantages are reduced to the minimum so that it can serve us in a better way.




Online shopping

Along with the advance of the society ,more and more person has experienced online shopping .online shopping has come into fashion in most of cities due to the rapid development of internet technology .At the same time ,with the increasing globalization and urbanization , the human race has entered a completely new stage in its history.

Online shopping has its pros and cons just as the saying goes:”so many people ,so many minds .”It is quite understandable that views on this issue vary from person to person .From the perspective of consumers .it can save some time for people who don’t have much spare time .For retailers ,it can cut some costs for those without much circulating funds .However ,there are still some defects in online shopping .First ,compared with face-to-face deal, it seems less reliable and trustworthy .Second ,people will lose the fun of bargain.

After a thorough consideration ,for my part ,I am in favor of the view that we still should be careful when we “go shopping “though internet although shopping online has been an irresistible trend in modern society .we should check the information carefully that released via the internet .Only in this way can we enjoy the pleasure and convenience of online shopping without the concern of being cheated .it is of great importance .

Translation:随着社会的进步,越来越多的人都有过网上购物的经历。网上购物已成为时尚在大部分城市由于互联网技术的快速发展。同时,随着经济全球化和城市化,人类进入了一个历史的崭新的阶段。 网上购物有其利弊,正如俗话说的:“这么多人,所以有很多的想法。”这是可以理解的,对这个问题的看法因人而异。从消费者的角度。它可以节省一些时间的人谁没有太多的空余时间。对于零售商,它可以削减成本为那些没有多少流动资金。但是,仍然存在一些缺陷在网上购物。第一,与面对面交易,似乎不太可靠和值得信赖的。其次,人们将失去乐趣的讨价还价。 经过深入的思考,对我而言,我赞成这样的观点,我们仍然要小心,当我们“去购物”虽然互联网虽然网上购物已是大势所趋,在现代社会。我们应该仔细检查信息发布通过互联网。只有这样我们才能享受快乐和便利的网上购物不担心受骗。这是非常重要的。


▲ dir

▲ attrib

▲ cd

▲ copy

▲ xcopy

▲ del

▲ undelete

▲ deltree

▲ dos=high

▲ doskey

▲ emm386.exe

▲ fc

▲ format

▲ unformat

▲ interlnk

▲ intersvr

▲ memmaker

▲ memitem等

▲ mscdex

▲ msd

▲ prompt

▲ ramdrive

▲ subst

▲ mem

▲ "> < >> <<"工具

▲ move

▲ append

▲ call

▲ defrag

▲ device

dir [D:][PATH][NAME][[/A][:attrib]][/o:[sorted][/s][/b][/l][/c[h]

(1)dir /a:attrib 缺省包含所有文件(系统文件.隐含文件)











(3)/s 参数:对当前目录及其子目录中所有文件进行列表

列名:dir /s/a/o:n c:\>PRN


(4)/B 参数:将只显示文件名与扩展名

(5)/L 参数:将全部用小写字母对文件或子目录进行列表


dir /a 列当前目录所有文件(含隐含及系统文件)

dir /ah 列隐含文件(包含子目录(隐含的) dir /a-h

dir /as 列系统文件 dir /a-s

dir /ad 列子目录 dir /a-d

dir /o 按字母顺序

dir /B 只显示文件名与扩展名

二、attrib [+r|-r] [+a|-a] [+s|-s] [+h|-h] [d: ] [name] [/s]

缺省 attrib name 显示文件的(文件)属性

attrib io.sys (或子目录)

shr c:\ io.sys 指定为系统(s) 隐含(h) 只读(r)文件

也可以attrib *.sys 显示扩展名为sys的文件属性

参数 [+r|-r] 将文件属性设置或解除 只读属性

[+a|-a] 将文件属性设置或解除 归档属性

[+h|-h] 将文件属性设置或解除 隐含属性 (尤其对子目录也起作用)

/s 参数 将当前及当前子目录下的所有文件均起作用



attrib news86 列news86的文档属性

attrib +r report.txt 设置为只读 attrib -s -h record.txt

attrib +a a:*.*

attrib -a a:*.bak

xcopy a: b: /a 将A盘上的所有标志为"归档"属性的文件拷到B盘

xcopy a: b: /m 将A盘上的所有文件拷到B盘后并移去归档属性

三、cd 介绍: cd...返回上二级目录 "."代表当前目录 "."代表父目录

cd ..\..返回到上级目录的父目录(祖目录)

cd A:\ 将A盘的当前目录改为根目录

cd A:\xx 将A盘的当前目录改为子目录xx下

cd ..\98 先返回父目录,再进入父目录下的98子目录

cd ..返回到父目录

cd\98 进入根目录下的98子目录

四、copy [/y][/-y][/v][ /B]

copy /y 不加提示,对所有文件加以覆盖

/-y 加以提示,对所有文件 (yes或no提问 )

/v 拷贝以后加以校验

/B 按二进制进行显示

copy w1.wps con/b 可以将wps文件在屏幕上显示,而不必进入wps状态

copy ..\98 将父目录下的98子目录下的所有文件全拷到当前子目录

copy .\97 当当前目录下的97子目录下文件全部拷到当前目录

copy . c:\ 将当前目录下的所有文件拷到c盘根目录

. 意味着 *.* 文件

copy nul a.abc 将a.abc 文件清空(文件长度改为0)

copy 文件名+con 向文本文件中追加命令或内容

copy con 文件名 创建文本文件(F6存盘退出)

copy con prn 检测打印机的开关


xcopy [source] [d:date] [/p] [/s] [/e] [/v] [/y]

xcopy [d:date] xcopy a:b:\ /d:08/18/98/s/v 拷贝98.08.18年后的文件 xcopy [/p] 提示创建子目录

xcopy [/s] 连带子目录一起拷贝. 注意:若目标盘上不存在此子目录,而在目标


does destination specify a file name or directory name on the target


在目标盘上创建文件[按下]还是创建子目录[按下d] ?应选择d键

xcopy[/v] 带较验

*:(1) xcopy 不拷贝系统和隐含文件,应先予以修改属性再拷贝

xcopy [/y] 覆盖时是否有提示, /y 不带提示


六、 del /p

加/p 可以在删除前是否提示



七、undelete [name] /au


存在,则按"# % & 0 1 2-9 a-z"顺序加上.

如:undelete *.dbf/au 将扩展名为"dbf"的文件全恢复,并以"#"开头,作为文件 名, /list 仅列出可恢复的文件,而不恢复

undelete /load 将undelete装入内存

/unload 将undelete卸出内存



将 undelete驻留内存,?并创建一个隐含的sentry 子目录对c盘删除的文件进行 管理 undelete/ds 恢复


最常用undelete *.*

deltree /y [drive:path]

deltree 删除子目录及文件,尽管有些文件是系统文件或隐含文件


如:?undelete *.dbf/au 将扩展名为"dbf"的文件全恢复,并以"#"开头作为文件 名.

/list 仅列出可恢复的文件,而不作恢复操作.

undelete/load 将undelete 装入内存.

/unload将undelete 卸出内存.

/s[drive] 对指定的驱动器进行监视管理.

undelete/sc 将undelete 驻留内存,并创建一个隐含的sentry子目录对C盘删除 的文件进行管理.相应恢复命令可以用undelete/ds 即可完整恢复出文件名(很完善). 最常用的是undelete *.*

八、deltree /y [drive:path]

deltree 删除子目录及文件,尽管有些文件是系统或隐含的.



deltree L*.* 将删除以上所有的文件和子目录,但在删除前加以确认,若不删除, 可以输入"N".

/y 参数是在删除时不加以确认就进行操作的.

它删除的文件可以用undelete恢复,?但不能恢复子目录及其下的文件,可以用特 殊工具.如NORTON 8.0 等.




dos=high,umb 则dos将自身装入高端内存(high)并能管理上位内存(umb). noumb 则不管理上位内存.

在写入dos=high及umb 前应装入device=himem.sys

为了将程序或驱动程序装入上位内存,必须使用dos=umb,可省出大部分常规内存. 可以在config.sys的任何位置写上dos=high,umb

若显示hma not avoiable 或 load down low 则表明不能使用高端内存.

十、doskey 记录以前敲过的dos命令,可以用F7来显示,用"↑↓"来选择,用F9来输入 选择的命令号.

doskey/restall 重新装入一次,以前的命令行撤消.

doskey/history 显示内存中所有的命令,可以">"显示到其它文件中,缩写"/H". doskey dir=cls 则击入dir等同于cls一样.

doskey/macros 可显示所有的宏定义,可使用">"重定义到文件中,可缩写"/M". doskey dir= 可撤消对dir 的宏定义.

doskey p=dir$tdir*.exe/p$tdir c:\t$tdir c:\t$*


doskey/insert(overstrike)?在重新输入命令时,对旧命令的修改是插入还是覆 盖状态(默认).



常见的用法是 在config.sys 中


device=c:\dos\emm386.exe ram

d=64 将DMA 内存数量设置为64K

noems 提供对上位内存的访问,但不提供对扩展内存的访问.

应注意的是在windows中最好不要用它,因为windows本身有对扩展内存进行管理 的程序.应采用windows中的管理器.

十二、fc 命令 fc/b dt.dat dt2.dat>b (作二进制代码比较)


实际代码位置应加上0100 如:0000 05E4:00 67

实际用debug -e 修改时应加上0100 即 0000 06E4:00 67

后面加上重定向文件">P" 可以将比较结果输出到p文件中.

十三、format /q /u /s /n:sectors /f:size /c

/q参数:快速格式化,仅扫描文件分配表和根目录区,仅对格式化过的磁盘有效. 使用时应确保格式化过后没有增加新的坏道.

/u参数:无条件格式化,并且不保存原来盘上的信息,可以防止"unformat". /s参数:格式化为系统盘,也可以使用"sys"命令.

/f:size size 可以为160 180 320 360 720 1200 1440 2800

/n:sector n可以为1 格式为单面盘,容量为160k 180k

可以为4 可以在5寸高密驱动器上格式化360k磁盘

可以为8 可以在5寸高密驱动器上进行8个扇区的格式化.

/c 重新测试坏扇区,缺省时如果一个扇区标记为"坏",以后格式时就不在从新测 试,仅作标记,使用"/C"时可以从新测试.

十四、unformat 命令

对用format 格式过,且未用"/u"参数的命令起作用,用它可以来重新修复已经损 坏的硬盘分区表,但对网络盘不起作用.

unformat drive:[/l][/test][/p]

/l 显示每一个被unformat发现的文件和子目录,如果没有这个开关,只显示那些 破碎的文件和子目录,可以用ctrl+s 暂停,按任意键继续.

/test 仅作一个测试,不作实际的修复工作,作模拟过程.

/p 一边测试一边打印.

注:这种方法不能保证修复所有的文件,尤其是格式化后又添加过数据的磁盘. 恢复后的文件依次存放在subdir1....2....3等子目录中.

十五、interlnk 语法 interlnk g=e ,它可以通过串口或并口在两机间进行通讯. 将服务器端上的e驱动器映射为客户端的g驱动器,以后对客户端而言,所有对g的 操作都意味着对服务器的访问,取消映射的办法为interlnk g=

单独输入interlnk 则显示所有的映射情况.

注意:interlnk 必须在装入interlnk.exe 设备驱动程序才可以使用.



Question:What do you think of online shopping?





5. What is the online shopping? What are the advantages of online shopping? What are the disadvantages of online shopping? Examples we usually see about online shopping. What people are worried about?


The content of online shopping

Online shopping is the process where by consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet. It is a form of electronic commerce. An online shop, eshop, e-store, internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping centre. The process is called Business-to-Consumer (B2C) online shopping. When a business buys from another business it is called Business-to-Business (B2B) online shopping.

In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the first World Wide Web server and browser. It opened for commercial use in 1991 . In 1994 other advances took place, such as online banking and the opening of an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut. During that same year, Netscape introduced SSL encryption of data transferred online, which has become essential for secure online shopping. Also in 1994 the German company Intershop introduced its first online shopping system. In 1995 Amazon launched its online shopping site, and in 1996 eBay appeared.

In recent years, online shopping has become popular; however, it still caters to the middle and upper class. In order to shop online, one must be able to have access to a computer, a bank account and a debit card. Shopping has evolved with the growth of technology. According to research found in the Journal of Electronic Commerce, if one focuses on the demographic characteristics of the in-home shopper, in general, the higher the level of education, income, and occupation of the head of the household, the more favourable the perception of non-store shopping., Enrique.(2005) The Impact of Internet User Shopping Patterns and Demographics on Consumer Mobile Buying Behaviour. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, An influential factor in consumer attitude towards non-store shopping is exposure to technology, since it has been demonstrated that increased exposure to technology increases the probability of developing favourable attitudes towards new shopping channels.

Online shopping widened the target audience to men and women of the middle class. At first, the main users of online shopping were young men with a high level of income and a university education. This profile is changing. For example, in USA in the early years of Internet there were very few women users, but by 2001 women were 52.8% of the online population. The main idea of online shopping is not just in having a good looking website that could be listed in a lot of search engines or the art behind the site. It also is not only just about

disseminating information, because it is also about building relationships and making money. Mostly, organizations try to adopt techniques of online shopping without understanding these techniques and/or without a sound business model. Rather than supporting the organization's culture and brand name, the website should satisfy consumer's expectations. A majority of consumers choose online shopping for a faster and more efficient shopping experience. Many researchers notify that the uniqueness of the web has dissolved and the need for the design, which will be user centered, is very important. Companies should always remember that there are certain things, such as understanding the customer's wants and needs, living up to promises, never go out of style, because they give reason to come back. And the reason will stay if consumers always get what they expect. McDonaldization theory can be used in terms of online shopping, because online shopping is becoming more and more popular and a website that wants to gain more shoppers will use four major principles of McDonaldization: efficiency, calculability, predictability and control.

Organizations, which want people to shop more online with them, should consume extensive amounts of time and money to define, design, develop, test, implement, and maintain the website. Also if a company wants their website to be popular among online shoppers it should leave the user with a positive impression about the organization, so consumers can get an impression that the company cares about them. The organization that wants to be accepted in online shopping needs to remember, that it is easier to lose a customer then to gain one. Lots of researchers state that even when a site was "top-rated", it would go nowhere if the organization failed to live up to common etiquette, such as returning e-mails in a timely fashion, notifying customers of problems, being honest, and being good stewards of the customers' data. Organizations that want to keep their customers or gain new ones should try to get rid of all mistakes and be more appealing to be more desirable for online shoppers. And this is why many designers of webshops consider research outcomes concerning consumer expectations. Research conducted by Elliot and Fowell (2000) revealed satisfactory and unsatisfactory customer experiences.

Advantages of online shopping

1. Convenience

Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day, and many consumers have Internet access both at work and at home. Other establishments such as internet cafes and schools provide access as well. A visit to a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business hours.

In the event of a problem with the item – it is not what the consumer ordered, or it is not what they expected – consumers are concerned with the ease with which they can return an item for the correct one or for a refund. Consumers may need to contact the retailer, visit the post office and pay return shipping, and then wait for a replacement or refund. Some online companies have more generous return policies to compensate for the traditional advantage of

physical stores. For example, the online shoe retailer Zappos.com includes labels for free return shipping, and does not charge a restocking fee, even for returns which are not the result of merchant error. (Note: In the United Kingdom, online shops are prohibited from charging a restocking fee if the consumer cancels their order in accordance with the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Act 2000.

2. Information and reviews

Online stores must describe products for sale with text, photos, and multimedia files, whereas in a physical retail store, the actual product and the manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might involve a test drive, fitting, or other experimentation).

Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information, such as instructions, safety procedures, demonstrations, or manufacturer specifications. Some provide background information, advice, or how-to guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy.

Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. There are also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products.

In a conventional retail store, clerks are generally available to answer questions. Some online stores have real-time chat features, but most rely on e-mail or phone calls to handle customer questions.

3. Price and selection

One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for items or services with many different vendors (though some local search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby stores). Search engines, online price comparison services and discovery shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or service.

Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online merchandise, though depending on the jurisdiction, a lack of sales tax may compensate for this.

Shipping a small number of items, especially from another country, is much more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers order. Some retailers (especially those selling small, high-value items like electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders.

Another major advantage for retailers is the ability to rapidly switch suppliers and vendors without disrupting users' shopping experience..

Disadvantages of online shopping

1. Fraud and security concerns

Given the lack of ability to inspect merchandise before purchase, consumers are at higher risk of fraud on the part of the merchant than in a physical store. Merchants also risk fraudulent

purchases using stolen credit cards or fraudulent repudiation of the online purchase. With a warehouse instead of a retail storefront, merchants face less risk from physical theft.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and the merchant. Identity theft is still a concern for consumers when hackers break into a merchant's web site and steal names, addresses and credit card numbers. A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s has prompted some U.S. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens. Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and e-commerce service providers, who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls and anti-virus software to protect their networks.

Phishing is another danger, where consumers are fooled into thinking they are dealing with a reputable retailer, when they have actually been manipulated into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party. Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants, as are server and network outages.

Quality seals can be placed on the Shop web page if it has undergone an independent assessment and meets all requirements of the company issuing the seal. The purpose of these seals is to increase the confidence of the online shoppers; the existence of many different seals, or seals unfamiliar to consumers, may foil this effort to a certain extent. A number of resources offer advice on how consumers can protect themselves when using online retailer services. These include:

 Sticking with known stores, or attempting to find independent consumer reviews of their experiences; also ensuring that there is comprehensive contact information on the website before using the service, and noting if the retailer has enrolled in industry oversight programs such as trust mark or trust seal.

 Before buying from a new company, evaluate the website by considering issues such as: the professionalism and user-friendliness of the site; whether or not the company lists a telephone number and/or street address along with e-contact information; whether a fair and reasonable refund and return policy is clearly stated; and whether there are hidden price inflators, such as excessive shipping and handling charges.

 Ensuring that the retailer has an acceptable privacy policy posted. For example note if the retailer does not explicitly state that it will not share private information with others without consent.

 Ensuring that the vendor address is protected with SSL (see above) when entering credit card information. If it does the address on the credit card information entry screen will start with "HTTPS".

 Using strong passwords, without personal information. Another option is a "pass phrase," which might be something along the lines: "I shop 4 good a buy!!" These are difficult to hack, and provides a variety of upper, lower, and special characters and could be site specific and easy to remember.

Although the benefits of online shopping are considerable, when the process goes poorly it can create a thorny situation. A few problems that shoppers potentially face include identity theft, faulty products, and the accumulation of spyware. Whenever you purchase a product, you are going to be required to put in your credit card information and billing/shipping address. If the website is not secure a customers information can be accessible to anyone who knows how to obtain it. Most large online corporations are inventing new ways to make fraud more difficult, however, the criminals are constantly responding to these developments with new ways to manipulate the system. Even though these efforts are making it easier to protect yourself online, it is a constant fight to maintain the lead. It is advisable to be aware of the most current technology and scams out there to fully protect yourself and your finances. One of the hardest areas to deal with in online shopping is the delivery of the products. Most companies offer shipping insurance in case the product is lost or damaged; however, if the buyer opts not to purchase insurance on their products, they are generally out of luck. Some shipping companies will offer refunds or compensation for the damage, but it is up to their discretion if this will happen. It is important to realize that once the product leaves the hands of the seller, they have no responsibility (provided the product is what the buyer ordered and is in the specified condition).

2. Lack of full cost disclosure

The lack of full disclosure with regards to the total cost of purchase is one of the concerns of online shopping. While it may be easy to compare the base price of an item online, it may not be easy to see the total cost up front as additional fees such as shipping are often not be visible until the final step in the checkout process. The problem is especially evident with cross-border purchases, where the cost indicated at the final checkout screen may not include additional fees that must be paid upon delivery such as duties and brokerage. Some services such as the Canadian based Wishabi attempts to include estimates of these additional cost, but nevertheless, the lack of general full cost disclosure remains a concern.

3. Privacy

Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers. Different legal jurisdictions have different laws concerning consumer privacy, and different levels of enforcement. Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result from supplying contact information to an online merchant. In response, many merchants promise not to use consumer information for these purposes, or provide a mechanism to opt-out of such contacts.

Many websites keep track of consumers shopping habits in order to suggest items and other websites to view. Brick-and-mortar stores also collect consumer information. Some ask for address and phone number at checkout, though consumers may refuse to provide it. Many larger stores use the address information encoded on consumers' credit cards (often without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list. This information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash.


With only two weeks to go before Christmas, buying presents is a high priority for a lot of people. However, this year not so many people are leaving their homes to browse around the shops. These days lots of people can do their shopping in the comfort of their own home with the help of the internet.

Online shopping is becoming more and more popular for a number of reasons; prices are often lower online, you don’t have to queue up in busy shops and you can buy almost any product imaginable with just a few clicks of your mouse.

One victim of the online shopping boom is the UK high street. Christmas trading can represent up to 60% of turnover for some stores. Many companies are concerned that not enough shoppers are coming through their doors in the run-up to Christmas. As a result there are lots of special offers in the shops.

Most shops traditionally have sales after Christmas but this year the bargains have come early in an attempt to lure consumers to spend. Bad news for the high street has become good news for the bank balances of UK shoppers this Christmas!

Even the most enthusiastic shopper has a bad day sometimes: You can find what you want, every second person in the crowd seems intent on bumping into you, and your legs are aching from hip to toe. It's at times like these when the much-touted convenience of shopping over the Internet sounds like a better alternative.

Like bargain hunters in the real world, however, on-line shoppers need to be aware of the pitfalls in order to enjoy the benefits of e-commerce. For most, the main concern is the invisibility of whoever is on the other end of the transaction. Those walking into the cyber market armed only with a credit card and an active imagination need to follow a few guidelines.

The golden rule in purchasing anything over the Internet is to find out who you are dealing with. The first step is to make sure the company is legal and has clearly stated sales and security policies, which should be easy to access on its Web site.

Buyers should also pay close attention to the terms and conditions of sale, such as whether there are any hidden extras in the form of delivery costs. Of course, it is essential that the firm can guarantee the security of personal information and credit card numbers. Otherwise, you may end up being charged more than you bargained for.

Not all on-line shopping is done in virtual stores. Internet auctions function in much the same way as regular auctions, though with a longer time limit. Information about items for sale is posted on an auction site and anyone can make a bid within the stipulated time. The successful bidder is informed by e-mail. Then, payment and delivery, which are carried out by prearranged methods, follow.

There are two kinds of auction sites: business-to-person and person-to-person. In the former, it is the Web site that has possession of the goods on sale and accepts payment for them, whereas a person-to-person auction site merely provides a means by which sellers can sell their goods directly to customers.

As with other forms of Internet shopping, credit cards are usually the safest and most convenient way to pay, but in a person-to-person deal, the seller may be unwilling to accept them, insisting instead on cashier’s check or money order before sending the merchandise. In the case, some sites recommend an escrow services that will handle the transaction independently for a fee of around 5 percent of the cost of the item.

Practically anything can be bought on-line and, provided the appropriate caution is exercised, Internet shopping can be a rewarding alternative to trudging through the stores. So sit back, log on, and save the workout for the gym.

What people are worried about

Computer trends are often male-dominated but this year women are expected to do more shopping on the internet than men. It seems women are now more attracted to the convenience of online shopping than they used to be.

Average spending online this Christmas by women will rise to 3360 Yuan compared to the slightly lower average of £233 for men, while the average spend per person on the high street is only £197. 70% of internet users, male and female, are now buying their Christmas gifts online.

In the past a lot of people were reluctant to shop online. Many were worried about the security of entering their card details on the internet and the reliability of the internet but as shopping online has become more widespread, these worries have begun to disappear. 45% of internet users still do have security worries but it hasn’t slowed down the ever-increasing numbers of online shoppers.

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